Editor, Traditional Knowledge Systems
Name: Sharada Srinivasan
Date of Birth: 16 January 1966
612, 11th cross,
Kailas, 2nd Main, J.P. Nagar, Bangalore 560078, India
Tel: 0091-80-6582829; email: email@example.com
Current Occupation and address
Researcher in Archaeometallurgy, Archaeomaterials and inter-disciplinary studies
in science and art,
Associate Fellow, National Institute of Advanced Studies,
Indian Institute of Science Campus. Bangalore 560012, India
tel: 0091-80-3604351; fax: 0091-80-3606634
-Higher Secondary Certificate (1983), Jai Hind College, Mumbai,
India in Sciences (Distinction)
-Bachelor of Technology (1987),
Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, in Engineering Physics -(First Class)
-Master’s (1989), School of Oriental and African Studies, University
of London in Art and Archaeology (Distinction). MA dissertation: “Technological
aspects of use of stone in Indian temple architecture”
-Ph.D. (1996), in Archaeometallurgy, Institute of Archaeology,
University College London, UK. Thesis was entitled: “The enigma of the dancing
‘pancha-loha’ (five-metalled) icons: Art historical and archaeometallurgical
investigations on south Indian metal icons’. (Recommended by examiners for publication).
Synopsis: The thesis is the first and most comprehensive study on the applications
of inter-disciplinary scientific and archaeometallurgical investigations in
the art historical study, dating, provenancing and finger-printing of South
Indian metal icons. A 130 representative South Indian images from Government
Museum, Madras (70), Victoria and Albert Museum (50) and British Museum (10),
UK were sampled with compositional analysis undertaken for 18 elements using
Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) at Royal
Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham, UK, complemented with Atomic Absorption
Spectroscopy (AAS) done at Wolfson Technical Laboratories, Institute of Archaeology,
University College London. Lead isotope analysis, a front-line finger-printing
method for metal artefacts was undertaken on 60 images using Thermal Ionization
Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) at Oxford Research Laboratory for Art and Archaeology,
Oxford, UK. Ancient mining sites in southern India were explored and slag analyses
were undertaken by electron microscopy (SEM-EDS and EPMA-WDS) at Institute of
Positions and fellowships:
-DST-SERC Young Scientist Awardee (2001-2003) for “Metallurgical
characterization and corrosion phenomena of high-tin bronzes from ancient India’.
-Grant for project on ‘Comparative investigations on copper alloys
from India and Sri Lanka’ (2001), from India-Sri Lanka Fund, New Delhi
-Research Associate, Dept. of Conservation & Scientific Research,
Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA (1999),
supported by Edwardo Waldo Forbes Fund.
-Junior Research Fellow, Ministry of Culture, India in Application
of Science and Technology in Art and Archaeology. (1999-2000)
-Homi Bhabha Research Fellow in
Archaeometallurgy (1996-1998), Department of Metallurgy, Indian Institute of
Science, Bangalore, India. Academic Visitor to UK and US in Oct.-Dec. 1998
-Research Assistant in Resource and Infrastructure Documentation
of Karjat Tribal Block. Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas,
Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (Mar-Aug. 1988).
Academic Prizes and Scholarships::
MRS Graduate Student Award, 1997, Materials Research Society,
USA, for paper entitled: ‘Archaeometallurgical implications of traditional
crafts of high-tin beta and high-tin delta bronzes in Kerala state, southern
Flinders Petrie Prize and Medal from University of London, 1989,
for MA Dissertation on ‘Technological aspects of the Use of Stone in Indian
British Chevening Scholarship from British Council for Ph.D. at
University College London (1990-4)
Overseas Research Studentship (ORS), UK for remission of overseas
tuition for Ph.D. (1990-4)
Charles Wallace Trust-India, UK, Topping-up Award for Ph.D. research
in UK (1990-1).
Grants from Gordon Childe Fund, Institute of Archaeology, London,
and Central Research Fund, University of London, and Ancient India & Iran
Trust, Cambridge (1991-2) for fieldwork for Ph.D. thesis
Small Study Grant from Nehru Trust for the Indian Collections
at the Victoria & Albert Museum, grants from Victoria & Albert Museum,
London and British Museum, London, and Institute of Archaeometallurgical Studies
(IAMS) for technical analysis and finger-printing of South Indian metal icons
including lead isotope ratio analysis undertaken at ISOTRACE laboratory, University
of Oxford and ICP-OES undertaken at Royal Holloway and Bedford New College,
Selected invited lectures or conference papers (excluding published conference
papers listed further)
‘From temple to mantelpiece: changing paradigms in the art and
craft of south Indian metal icons’. Presented at international seminar on ‘South
Asian Arts: Past Practice, Living Traditions’ at PRASADA, De Montfort University,
Leicester, UK, June 2002.
Delegate at International Seminar on Proposed Asian Institute
of Museology and Culture in Development, organized by UNESCO and Central Cultural
fund, Sri Lanka at Habarana (May 2002)
‘Image casting and high-tin bronze traditions in south India’,
Presented at international conference on Metals in Antiquity: Founders, Platers
and Smiths at Oxford (Sept. 1999)
‘Ethnographic metal working in India’, Research School for Archaeology,
University of Sheffield (Nov. 1999)
‘Finger-printing and authentication of metal icons’, at C.P. Ramaswamy
Aiyer Indological Foundation, Madras /Chennai (Feb 1999)
‘Finger-printing south Indian images using lead isotope analysis’,
at conference of COST-G1 committee on Ion Bean Analysis in Art and Archaeology,
European Commission & University of Oxford (Nov. 1998)
‘High-tin bronzes from south India from prehistory into present
day: making of beta bronze vessels and delta bronze mirrors’, at Dept. of Materials
Science, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, USA, Oct. 1998.
‘Aspects of continuity in copper-base metallurgy and finds of
bronzes of high tin from Indus Valley into present day southern India”, Presented
at conference The Present and Future of Indus Valley Archaeology, held
at 27th Annual Conference on South Asia held at University of Wisconsin-Madison,
‘Dating Chola bronzes: technical insights’, for International
Music and Arts Society, Bangalore (Mar. 2000).
Delegate invited by Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural
Heritage at 4-day workshop on ‘Stone Conservation’ at National Museum, New Delhi,
organized by British Council as part of events of ‘Enduring Image’ exhibition
from British Museum, UK, held at National Museum, New Delhi (Dec 1997). Paper
presented on ‘Authentication and finger-printing of metal artefacts’ at associated
seminar on ‘Authentification of Museum Artefacts’ at National Museum, New Delhi.
Delegate at seminar on ‘Lasers in Heritage Conservation’ organised
by Indo-French Technical Association, Bombay and J.J. School of Architecture
and Planning, Bombay (Feb 1997).
Lectured on ‘Archaeometallurgy of South Indian bronzes’ at Nehru
Centre, London and Institute of Indian Culture, London as part of seminars organized
by ‘Festival of India’s South’ in UK at British Museum, School of Oriental and
African Studies, and Nehru Centre, London (May-June 1966)
‘Crucible steel from South India’ at Seminar on ‘Early Production
of Steel’, at Institute of Archaeology, University College London (June 1996).
‘High tin bronze mirrors from Kerala’, World Archaeology Congress
(WAC-3), New Delhi (1994)
Delegate proposed by Prince of Wales Museum, Mumbai for meet on
'Care and Conservation of Museum Materials' at National Research Laboratory
for Conservation of Cultural Property, Lucknow (Feb 1988)
Delegate at workshop organized by Heritage Trust, Baroda University
and ICCROM, Rome on ‘Conservation of Architectural Heritage of Champaner, Gujarat’,
Paper presented as co-author (Srinivasan, Sharada & Sarma,
Nataraj.) on ‘History of Measurement and Calibration of Time in Bombay’ for
the Eighth International Scientific Instrument Symposium of the Society for
the History and Philosophy of Science, London, at Burlington House, Society
for Antiquaries, 12-16, Sept. 1988
Delegate at ‘Site Seminar on the Art of Ajanta’, organized by
University of Michigan, Ann Arbour, USA, held at Ajanta caves, Maharashtra,
Advisory role for Ph.D. thesis of Arjuna Thantillege, Lecturer,
Post-Graduate Institute of Archaeology, Sri Lanka on ‘Archaeometallurgy of Sri
Lankan copper alloy images’ and visiting faculty in Nov. 2002 at Department
of Archaeology, Uppsala University, Sweden supported by SIDA in connection
Guest lecturer on ‘High-tin bronzes’ at course on ‘Metallography
of ancient artefacts’ held by D. Scott of Getty Conservation Institute for ‘Summer
School on Conservation’ held at Institute of Archaeology, University College
London (July 1993, 1994)
Lectured on ‘South Indian bronzes’ for Sotheby’s-SOAS Arts Diploma
Course, South Asia Module (Nov. 1993, 1994), School of Oriental and African
Given few lectures on 'Man and Metals', for First year undergraduates
in Archaeology and for Graduate seminars in Archaeometallurgy at Institute of
Archaeology, University College London (1994-6)
Lectured on ‘Ancient Indian Metallurgy’ for college course on
‘Understanding Science’ organised by National Institute of Advanced Studies
& Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, 2003
experience as performing artiste
Acclaimed exponent of classical South Indian dance
or Bharata Natyam in the Pandanallur style:
Performed under the aegis of Singapore Fine Arts (1983), School
of Oriental and African Studies & Institute of India Culture, London (1988),
Mridula Shastri (Lockerbie Memorial) Fund, Oxford (1988), Indo-Austrian Society,
Vienna (1991), Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai (1986), World Wild Life
Fund, Mumbai (1985) and others
Acted and performed Bharata Natyam (classical South Indian dance)
in documentary film-cum-drama on ‘Nuclear Winter’ screened on Doordarshan National
Television in India in 1987
Given academic lectures/talks animated by abhinaya or expressive
art of Bharata Natyam; for e.g. on ‘The cosmic dance of Siva: an icon of science
and beyond’ for SSQ-III meet, NIAS, Bangalore, 2003, and on book readings from
translations of Tamil writer Kalki’s ‘Ponniyan Selvan’ (2002-3).
Certificate in Basic French from Alliance Française, Bombay (1988)
Certificate, Basic Mountaineering, Mountaineering Institute, Manali,
Himachal Pradesh, India (1985)
Certificate in Basic Photography from Indo-American Society, Bombay
Language Proficiency in English, Hindi, Tamil, Elementary Sanskrit
and French, Kannada
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. 2001. Dating the Nataraja dance icon: technical
insights. Marg-A Magazine of the Arts 52(4): 54-70.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. 2001. An archaeometallurgical approach in
the finger-printing and stylistic authentication of South Indian metal icons.
Conservation of Cultural Property (IASC Journal), New Delhi.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. 1999. Lead isotope and trace element analysis
in the study of over a hundred South Indian metal icons. Archaeometry
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. 1999. “Preliminary insights into provenance
of south Indian copper alloys and images using a holistic approach of comparisons
of their lead isotopes and chemical composition with slags and ores”, in Metals
in Antiquity. Proceedings of the conference held at Harvard, Sept. 1997.
BAR International Series 792. Edited by S. Young, M. Pollard, P. Budd and
R. Ixer, pp. 200-11. Oxford: Archaeopress.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. 1998. “Highlights of ancient south Indian
metallurgy-technical evidence for the early use of high-tin bronzes, high-carbon
steel, metallic zinc, smelting of bronze and cast images, Proceedings of
the Fourth International Conference on the Beginning of the Use of Metals and
Alloy (BUMA-IV), pp. 79-84. Matsue: Japan Institute of Metals.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. 1998. The use of tin and bronze in prehistoric
South Indian metallurgy. Journal of Metals, 50(7):44-7, 49.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. 1998. “High-tin bronze working in India:
The bowl makers of Kerala”, in Archaeometallurgy in India.Proceedings of
the First National Seminar held in Oct. 1991. Edited by V. Tripathi, pp.
241-51. New Delhi: Sharda Publishing Ltd.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. 1997. Present and past of southern Indian
crafts for making mirrors, lamps, bells, vessels, cymbals and gongs: links with
prehistoric high tin bronzes from Mohenjodaro, Taxila, South Indian megaliths
and later finds. Journal of the Society for South Asian Studies 13. 1997:
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. 1997. “The composition of bronze slags from
Kalyadi in South India, and the implications for the problem of tin in South
Indian antiquity”, in Archaeological Sciences 1995. Proceedings of a conference
on the application of scientific techniques to the study of archaeology, Liverpool,
July 1995. Oxbow Monograph Series 64. Ed. A. Sinclair, E. Slater, and J.
Gowlett, pp.136-42. Oxford: Oxbow books.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. 1994. “High-tin bronze bowl making from Kerala,
South India and its archaeological implications.” in South Asian Archaeology
1993. Annales Acadaemia Scientiarum Fennicae, Series B, Vol. 271. Edited
by A. Parpola, A. and P. Koskikallio, pp. 695-705. Helsinki: SuomalainenTiedeakatemia.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. 1994. Wootz crucible steel: a newly discovered
production site in South India. Papers from the Institute of Archaeology,
5: 49-61. London: University College London.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. 1994. “Appendix III. Metallurgical investigations
on Late Roman copper and bronze coins from Karur and Madurai”, in Late Roman
Copper Coins From South India: Karur and Madurai. Edited by R. Krishnamurthy,
pp. 121-33. Madras: Garnet Publications.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. and GLOVER, IAN. 1998. High-tin bronze mirrors
of Kerala, South India. IAMS Newsletter, 20: 15-7. London: Institute
of Archaeometallurgical Studies.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. and GLOVER, IAN. 1997. “Archaeometallurgical
implications of new findings of traditional crafts of making high-tin ‘delta’
bronze mirrors and ‘beta’ bronze vessels in Kerala state of South India”, in
Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology V, Materials Research Society Symposium
Proceedings Vol. 462. Edited by P. Vandivar, J, Druzik, J. Merkel, and J.
Stewart, pp. 81-105. Warrendale: Materials Research Society.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA and GLOVER, IAN 1995. Wrought and quenched
and cast high-tin bronzes from Kerala state, southern India. Part I. Contemporary
manufacture, Part II. Scientific investigations, Part III. Historical dimension.
Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society, 29(2): 69-87.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA and GRIFFITHS, DAFYDD. 1997. “Crucible steel
in South India: Preliminary investigations on crucibles from some newly identified
sites”, in Material Issues in Art and Archaeology-IV. Symposium held
December 3-5, 1996. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings
Series Vol.462. Ed. P. Vandivar, J, Druzik, J. Merkel, and J. Stewart, pp.
111-27. Warrendale: Materials Research Society.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA and RANGANATHAN, SRINIVASA. 1997. “Wootz steel:
an advanced material of the ancient world”, in Iron & Steel Heritage
of India. Ed. S. Ranganathan, pp. 69-82. Jamshedpur: Indian Institute of
Metals & Tata Steel. (http://metalrg.iisc.ernet.in/~wootz/heritage/WOOTZ.htm)
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA and RANGANATHAN, SRINIVASA. 1997. “Metallurgical
Heritage of India”,.in Golden Jubilee Souvenir, Indian Institute of
Science, pp. 29-36. Bangalore: Indian Institute of Science.
Research papers in press
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. ‘Early social history of Indian metal crafts:
some archaeometallurgical and ethnoarchaeological perspectives’. In: Chattopadhyay,
B.D. (ed.), History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilisation
series, PHISPC & Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. ‘On icons, vessels and mirrors from south
India: Tracing early use of tin, zinc and high-tin bronze’. In P. Bilimoria
(ed.). B.V. Subbarayappa Felicitation Volume, D.K. Printworld.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. ‘Chronology and metal sources of South Indian
metal icons’, Archaeology as History: South Asia, ed. H.P. Ray
and C. Sinopoli. Indian Council for Historical Research and United States Education
Foundation in India.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. ‘The cosmic dance of Siva: an icon of science
and beyond.’ In Srikantan, B.V. and S. Menon (eds.). Proceedings of international
conference on ‘Science and Beyond: Science and Spiritual Quest’ series
of John Templeton Foundation at National Institute of Advanced Studies.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA and RANGANATHAN, SRINIVASA. ‘Non-ferrous metals
heritage of mankind’. Special Issue of Transactions of Indian Institute of
General interest articles/photo-features/reviews
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA, 13 July 2003, ‘Heritage: Simmering Cauldrons’,
The Hindu: Sunday Mag., p. 6.
SRINIVASAN SHARADA, 22 June 2003, ‘Heritage: The Nataraja catapulted
onto the global stage form sacred environs’, The Week, Vol. 21, No. 29:
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA, Feb 5 2002. ‘Nataraja reveals cosmic secrets’,
Speaking Tree, Times of India.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. June 2002. ‘Holistic approaches to heritage
studies.’ NIAS Newsletter.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. Jan 2002. ‘Copenhagen’ revisited: The Uncertainty
Principle as a metaphor for science and society in our nuclear age. NIAS
Newsletter. (Review of play ‘Copenhagen’)
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. 1995. “Conference Reviews. World Archaeological
Congress (WAC) 3, New Delhi”. Papers from the Institute of Archaeology,
6: 89-91. London:University College.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. Summer 1991. Reviews: Dance. Bazaar-South
Asian Arts Magazine, B17: 23. London: Arts Council. (Review of UK-based
Shobhana Jeysingh Dance Company’s contemporary Bharata Natyam or south Indian
classical dance ballet ‘Correspondences’ on mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. 3 June 1990. “Jejuri-Life in a temple town”.
Economic Times, p. 2. Bombay.
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. 31 March 1990. “A Brief History of Time”.
Saturday Times, p. 2. Bombay: Times of India. (On history
of time measurement in old Bombay Presidency).
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. Dec 10-23, 1988. “The Amarnath mystique”,
Frontline, Madras. 5 (25): 49-67. (On mountain pilgrimage to Kashmir
with 10 published colour photographs including centre-spread.)
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. Feb 1988. “Bombay revisited”, Megacity,
pp. 14-8. (On heritage buildings).
SRINIVASAN, SHARADA. Dec 1987. “On the Tiger Trail to Melghat”,
Indian Express, Bombay. (On World Wildlife Fund Camp)